Information On London
London is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its founding by the Romans, who named it Londinium.
London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its square-mile mediaeval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, the name London has also referred to the metropolis developed around this core. The bulk of this conurbation forms the London region and the Greater London administrative area, governed by the elected Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
London is a leading global city, with strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transport all contributing to its prominence. It is the world's leading financial centre alongside New York City and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world depending on measurement. London has been described as a world cultural capital.
It is the world's most-visited city measured by international arrivals and has the world's largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic. London's 43 universities form the largest concentration of higher education in Europe. In 2012 London became the first city to host the modern Summer Olympic Games three times.
London has hosted the Summer Olympics three times: in 1908, 1948, and 2012. London was chosen in July 2005 to host the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics, making it the first city to host the modern Games three times. London was also the host of the British Empire Games in1934. London will host the 2017 World Championships in Athletics.
London's most popular sport is football and it has fourteen League football clubs, including six in the Premier League: Arsenal, Chelsea, Fulham,Queens Park Rangers, Tottenham Hotspur, and West Ham United.
London also has four rugby union teams in the Aviva Premiership (London Irish, Saracens, Wasps and Harlequins), although only the Harlequins play in London (all the other three now play outside Greater London, although Saracens still play within the M25). The other two professional rugby union teams in the city are second division clubs London Welsh and London Scottish, that play home matches in the city. The city has other very traditional rugby union clubs, famously Richmond F.C., Rosslyn Park F.C., Westcombe Park R.F.C. and Blackheath F.C.
There are currently three professional rugby league clubs in London – London Broncos who play in the European Super League at The Stoop and theChampionship One side the London Skolars (based in Wood Green, London Borough of Haringey) Hemel Stags based in Hemel Hempstead, north of London will play in the Championship One from 2013.
From 1924, the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team, and served as the venue for the FA Cup final as well asrugby league's Challenge Cup final. The new Wembley Stadium serves exactly the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000. Twickenham Stadium in south-west London is the national rugby union stadium, and has a capacity of 84,000 now that the new south stand has been completed.
Cricket in London is served by two Test cricket grounds Lord's (home of Middlesex C.C.C.) in St John's Wood and the Oval (home of Surrey C.C.C.) in Kennington.Lord's has hosted four finals of the Cricket World Cup. One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is theWimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon.
Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon which sees some 35,000 runners attempt a 26.2 miles (42.2 km) course around the city, and the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race on the River Thames between Putney and Mortlake.
The London Commuter Belt contains many internationally recognised golf courses such as, among others, Wentworth Golf Club and Sunningdale Golf Club.
London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, partly due to their varying ages. Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the National Gallery, are constructed from Portland stone. Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings.
Few structures in central London pre-date the Great Fire of 1666, these being a few trace Roman remains, the Tower of London and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the City. Further out is, for example, the Tudor period Hampton Court Palace, England's oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey c. 1515.
Wren's late 17th century churches and the financial institutions of the 18th and 19th centuries such as the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England, to the early 20th century Old Bailey and the 1960s Barbican Estate form part of the varied architectural heritage.
The disused, but soon to be rejuvenated, 1939 Battersea Power Station by the river in the southwest is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of Victorian architecture, most notably St. Pancras and Paddington. The density of London varies, with high employment density in the central area, high residential densities in inner London and lower densities in Outer London.
The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London, which originated nearby. Marble Arch and Wellington Arch, at the north and south ends of Park Lane respectively, have royal connections, as do the Albert Memorial and Royal Albert Hall in Kensington.
Nelson's Column is a nationally recognised monument in Trafalgar Square, one of the focal points of the city centre. Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow London stock brick or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster mouldings.
In the dense areas, most of the concentration is achieved with medium- and high-rise buildings. London's skyscrapers such as 30 St Mary Axe, Tower 42, the Broadgate Tower and One Canada Square are usually found in the two financial districts, the City of London and Canary Wharf. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of St Paul's Cathedral and other historic buildings.
Nevertheless there are a number of very tall skyscrapers to be found in central London (see Tall buildings in London), including the 72-storey Shard London Bridge, the tallest building in Europe.
Other notable modern buildings include City Hall in Southwark with its distinctive oval shape and the British Library in Somers Town/Kings Cross. What was formerly the Millennium Dome, located by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now used as an entertainment venue called The O2 Arena.
Crime In London
Boris Johnson, the Mayor of London, said crime fell by five per cent during the Games period compared with the previous year.
Meanwhile Scotland Yard said just nine people were arrested at Games venues out of a total of 276 arrests made by officers on Olympic duty.
By far the biggest number of arrests near Games venues were for ticket touting, with 168 people being held. Drugs offences accounted for 22 of the arrests, with 17 assaults and 11 thefts.
One person was arrested for a bomb hoax, another was held for swimming in the Thames, and another for voyeurism.
The nine arrests at Games venues included Ashley Gill-Webb, the 34-year-old who allegedly threw a plastic bottle onto the track behind Usain Bolt at the start of the 100m final, a 36-year-old Lithuanian who was fined £2,500 for making a Nazi salute at a basketball match and a 25-year-old Frenchman held for common assault after a fracas at the Royal Artillery Barracks on July 29.
Fraud In London
Whilst areas of London such as Kensington and Chelsea remain the heartland of identify fraud, less affluent areas both sides of the M25 are reporting increased cases of fraud.
Areas such as Stratford (large numbers of low income families) and Clapham Junction (with dense populations of young singles and high-flying graduates) are moving up the areas most at risk.
Missing People in London
In the financial year 2009/2010 alone there were in excess of 40,000
Merlin reports created for missing persons.
Missing persons incidents reported to the Met police in England
Qtr1 Qtr 2 Qtr3 Qtr4 Total
Metropolitan 13,759 13,393 11,403 10,737 49,292
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